Why do Tropical Cyclones Develop in Late Summer

Why do Tropical Cyclones Develop in Late Summer

Why do Tropical Cyclones Develop in Late Summer?

Title: Tropical Cyclones in Late Summer: A Geographical Exploration

Understanding the dynamics of tropical cyclones is an intriguing subject, especially for geography students. This scientific inquiry becomes even more fascinating when we explore the question: Why do tropical cyclones typically develop in late summer? This phenomenon seems to especially affect regions such as the Indian Ocean off the east coast of South Africa, where severe cyclones are known to occur.

Tropical cyclones, also referred to as hurricanes or typhoons in different parts of the world, are storm systems characterized by a low-pressure center, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms producing heavy rain. For these cyclones to form, several conditions must be met, including warm sea surface temperatures, atmospheric instability, high humidity in the lower to middle levels of the troposphere, enough Coriolis force to develop a low-pressure center, and a pre-existing low-level focus or disturbance.

Why do Tropical Cyclones Develop in Late Summer?

Tropical cyclones develop in late summer because this is typically the time when ocean waters reach their warmest temperatures, providing the heat energy necessary for cyclone formation. Additionally, atmospheric conditions tend to be more unstable and conducive for storm development during this period. The increased moisture and heat in the atmosphere can lead to the creation of thunderstorms, which are the building blocks for tropical cyclones.

  1. Warm Sea Surface Temperatures: Warm sea surface temperatures (usually around 26.5 degrees Celsius or higher) are a critical factor in the formation of tropical cyclones because they provide the energy source for the storms. In the late summer, the oceans have had all season to be warmed by the sun and hence are at their warmest. This is particularly true for the Indian Ocean off the coast of South Africa, where the warm Agulhas Current flows.
  2. Atmospheric Instability and Humidity: In the late summer, convective instability often reaches its peak, which can lead to the formation of thunderstorms—a key element of cyclones. Additionally, late summer is usually a period of high humidity. The warm air can hold more water vapor, and this moisture feeds the developing storm.
  3. Coriolis Force: This force is necessary to create the spin in the cyclone, and it becomes stronger as one moves away from the equator. Late summer in the southern hemisphere (February and March) corresponds to the time when the sun is moving back towards the equator from the Tropic of Capricorn, resulting in a balance of solar energy distribution, which enhances the Coriolis effect.

Previous Tropical Cyclones In the Past Summers in Southern Africa

Mozambique, located in southeast Africa, is no stranger to the devastating impacts of tropical cyclones. The country’s eastern coastline stretches along the Indian Ocean, making it particularly susceptible to these natural disasters. This article will explore some notable examples of tropical cyclones that have significantly impacted Mozambique: Freddy, Eloise, Ana, Guambe, and Idai.

Tropical Cyclone Hagibis

  • Hagibis was a powerful tropical cyclone that became one of the most devastating typhoons to hit Japan in recent history, particularly affecting the region in October 2019. It caused widespread flooding, landslides, and led to significant damage and loss of life. Hagibis was notable for its rapid intensification and the extensive impact it had on the Rugby World Cup 2019 and the Formula One Japanese Grand Prix.

Tropical Cyclone Freddy

  • Freddy refers to a tropical cyclone name that has been used in the Australian region. Cyclone names are reused in a rotation unless they are retired due to significant damage or fatalities. It’s important to check specific details for “Freddy” as there may be multiple instances of storms with this name over the years.

Tropical Cyclone Nivar

  • Nivar was a tropical cyclone that made landfall in November 2020 along the coast of Tamil Nadu, India, and Sri Lanka, causing substantial rainfall, flooding, and damage. The storm led to extensive preventive measures, including evacuations and the closure of airports and schools in affected areas.

Tropical Cyclone Ingrid

  • Ingrid can refer to several storms named over the years. One notable instance is Hurricane Ingrid of 2013, which affected parts of the Caribbean and Mexico. It was particularly known for causing heavy rainfall, leading to floods and landslides in Mexico.

Tropical Cyclone Florence

  • Florence has been used for various storms, but the most notable recent one is Hurricane Florence, which struck the southeastern United States in September 2018. Florence was characterized by its slow movement over the Carolinas, leading to catastrophic flooding, significant damage, and several fatalities.

Tropical Cyclone Eloise

  • Eloise was a tropical cyclone that impacted Madagascar, Mozambique, and parts of South Africa in January 2021. It caused severe flooding, especially in Mozambique, displacing thousands and causing widespread damage to infrastructure and homes.

Tropical Storm Ana

Ana, though classified as a tropical storm, had a significant impact when it made landfall in Mozambique in January 2022. It primarily affected Angoche district in Nampula province, the northern part of Zambezia province, and the southern part of Tete province. As per the National Disaster Management Institute (INGD), Ana left behind a trail of destruction affecting approximately 4,000 people, injuring 66, and causing five fatalities. The case of Ana demonstrates that even less intense tropical cyclones can still have a devastating impact, particularly when they hit densely populated or vulnerable areas.

Tropical Cyclone Guambe

Guambe was the third tropical cyclone to make landfall in Mozambique since December 2020, following Eloise and Chalane. Guambe originated from a tropical disturbance in the Mozambique Channel in February of the 2020-21 season. The cycle of disturbances evolving into fully-fledged cyclones, as seen with Guambe, shows how one key condition – a pre-existing disturbance – is integral to the formation of these storms.

Intense Tropical Cyclone Idai

Idai stands as one of the most catastrophic cyclones ever to affect Africa and the Southern Hemisphere. This long-lived storm wreaked havoc in Mozambique, Zimbabwe, and Malawi, causing a humanitarian crisis with over 1,500 people dead and many more missing. The devastation from Idai underscores the profound destructive potential of tropical cyclones, particularly when they reach an ‘Intense’ status.

Tropical cyclones Freddy, Eloise, Ana, Guambe, and Idai each represent distinct examples of the severity and impact of these weather phenomena on Mozambique. Understanding their development, trajectory, and aftermath can provide invaluable lessons in disaster preparedness and response, as well as the ongoing study of tropical cyclones in the context of changing global climate patterns. This knowledge is vital not only for geography students in Africa but also for policymakers and disaster management professionals.

Implications for South Africa

The late summer cyclone phenomenon has profound implications for South Africa and the broader southern African region. For instance, in February 2020, South Africa experienced the wrath of Cyclone Eloise, a reminder of the region’s vulnerability to extreme weather events.

While these cyclones can bring about severe destruction, including loss of life and damage to infrastructure, they also play a vital role in distributing heat across the planet and contributing to the rainfall in the region, a critical factor for the agriculture-dependent economies in southern Africa.


Understanding the mechanics of tropical cyclones and why they develop primarily during late summer can help us better predict these extreme weather events and possibly mitigate their effects. As climate change continues to affect weather patterns around the globe, studies like these are increasingly crucial for South Africa and the world. For geography students, this knowledge provides a deeper understanding of the complex interactions between the Earth’s oceans and atmosphere, making it a fascinating field of study.

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